History of a patent right - Privileges

History of a patent right - Privileges

Where does the Patent Law history of Russia begin? Probably it begins with the first Patent or to be more precise - with the “Privilege” and with the first decree concerning Privileges. This is an exact title for a patent, as it is now called.

So the “Svod Vydannyh v Rossii Privilegiy” (The corpus of the granted Privileges in Russia) is kept in the Russian Patent library that is situated in Moscow on the Berexhkovskaya naberezhnaya, suite 24, not far from Kievsky railway station.

The first Privilege has been granted for the “Machine for the most convenient coming-in of the shipping with large cargo of goods against the current of the river” to mechanical engineer- Puadebard on May 29, 1814 for 10 years. This invention is aimed to replace manpower with the horse labor when it is necessary to go the vessels having cargo of great weight against the current. The description is made on twenty pages. It includes three drawings. The specification is quite detailed, at the beginning it has the description of a construction, shown in the Figure 21 and having 36 positions. From the 13-th page the description of the work of the device begins (“Appliance and effect of the powers of the machine”). The description on 7 pages is rather explicit. Then on the 21-st page the positive result is given (“Profits of the above surplus invention”) and where the invention might be used (“The description of the manner of appliance of the above new invention”).

The essence of the invention is that in the center of a vessel a vertical mechanism is disposed which is set in motion by horses. The catch consists in the fact that with the help of fixers (clicks) the direction of robs can be changed, on the ends of which the anchors are fixed that are belayed by turns in operation. In the opinion of a contemporary expert the invention contains Know-How.

The second Privilege has been granted for a “Machine for mining of salt and brittle of one in lakes”, to Novozybkovsky Philistine Jakov Belugin, on August 29, 1814, for 10 years.

The above invention is aimed to replace break-man of the salt during this work because the labor is rather hard and harmful for health. After the description of the construction the description of profits of the machine in comparison with men is given. The particularity of the specification is that economy of its usage is very high.

Thus the above machine allows to mine 5000 poods of salt over dry-shod.

It should be operated by 10 men. When 8000 men can mine gain only 4 000 000 poods per summer manually. A simple calculation shows that one man can mine 500 poods manually and with the help of the machine this amount is mined per one day. The salary of one break-man is counted in such a way: 5 kopek for a pood, hereby he is able to mine 5 poods per day. Accordingly the economy is great: 1/10.

The third Privilege for “combat digestive stove” has been granted to Kievsky merchant of the 1-st guilt Timophey Buhteev, on the 9-th of October 1814 for 10 years.

The peculiarity of such a stove is in the great economy of wood with the same effect. More than 500 men can feed by hot soup, porridge and fresh bread per day, using much less wood.

The fourth Privilege for “Machine for making bricks and the special method of burning them” has been granted to a mechanician Iosif Shteger on December 8, 1816 for 10 years.

It is about the special quality of bricks and the possibility to produce them in winter.

The fifth Privilege for “Machine filling up the cases with the succory coffee” has been granted to priest Alexey Golosovof the Jaroslavskaya gubernia of the village Porechie on May 12, 1817 for 3 years.

With the help of the above machine one worker and his boy-assistant fill the cases with the flour succory in such an amount as 10 workers do. Hence the conclusion follows that the owner instead of 100 rubles for 10 workers pays only for two workers a week and at each 100 poods he gains 32 rubles, paying instead of 40 rubles – 8 rubles.

As it follows from the above – the opinion that the first five Privileges have been granted to foreigners is not correct.

In the future we will try to publish also the first Decrees concerning the Privileges.

«History of a patent right — Privileges  : russion version»
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